Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, is the main gate for trips to any destination within Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar is located on the bank of the Tuul River and surrounded by four sacred mountains. Well-known as a sunny, peaceful and open city, Ulaanbaatar is a city of contrasts where modern life comfortably blends with Mongolian traditional lifestyle.
Ulaanbaatar city is situated in the foothills of the Khentii mountain range. It is situated in the valley of the Tuul River, which flows from east to west in this location. Mountains and hill slopes define the northern (Chingeltei Uul) and southern (Bogd Uul) limits of the city. There are also mountains to the east (Bayanzurkh Uul) and west (Songino Khairkhan Uul), but the river valley and its tributaries provide some open land in these directions. Ulaanbaatar experiences an arid continental climate and has four distinctive seasons: summer, autumn, winter and spring. The summer extends from June to August when the average temperature is 15oC. Snowfall starts intermittently towards the end of the autumn. Winter extends from December to the end of February and is mostly cold with the average monthly temperature in February being –19oC. The minimum temperature reaches (minus) – 40oC during this period. The rainy season is from June to August, when about 74 percent of the annual rainfall occurs. The average annual rainfall for the last 20 years is 267 mm. The rapid population growth of Ulaanbaatar city
located in the sensitive ecosystem adds to its vulnerability to natural hazards. Population of Ulaanbaatar city has been growing rapidly, due to mass migration of people from natural hazard prone rural areas to the city. Comparing with historical maps one can see the dramatic increase of urbanization and expansion of settled areas along the river basins and flood prone zones because of the intensive migration from rural to urban area of the last few years (Figure 1). Since 1986 the population of the city has nearly doubled. Existing statistical data shows that there was an increase in the number of poor people living in Ulaanbaatar till 2001. However, for the following years, which have had more intensive rural to urban migration, data on poverty is not available
Bogd Khaan Palace Museum
1639-1924 for 285 years there were 8 people named Bogd Khaan (living Buddha) . The Bogd Khaan Palace was built for 8th Bogd Jabuzandamba who was Mongolia’s last king. The Palace was built in 1893-1906, it consists of a two story European style building and 10 temples. The king lived there more than 20 years with his queen Dondog-Dulam. Since 1926, the palace has been serving as a museum. The two story wooden house displays items use by the queen and king while the temples show impressive masterpieces of art from 17th to 20th century.
Chinggis khan`s Square / Central Square
The square is in the heart of Ulaanbaatar. In the center of the Square is a statue of a man riding a horse, he is Sukhbaatar who was a military general, leading People’s Revolutionary Movement in 1921. The square neighbors with Government House with a big bronze statue of Chinggis Khaan in front of it.
Choijin Lama Temple Museum
Choijin Lama (a monastic title) Temple Museum is an architectural masterpiece of 19th and 20th century. It was erected by Mongolian architects between 1904-1908 in honor of an influential monk who was a younger brother of Mongolian last king VIII Bogd Gegeen. It is the temple of Red sect of Buddhism. The temple was active until 1936 and closed in 1938 by communists. Since 1942, it is serving as temple museum, it consists of six temples containing more than 8600 items of cultural heritage, including the work of master painters, cast carvings, Mongolian silk appliqué, embroidery, Tsam dancing mask and sculptures.
Gandantegchilen, a Tibetan style monastery, active all year around, is located in the heart of Ulaanbaatar. It currently has over 400 monks in residence. The monastery was established in 1835. One of the places you should to visit in Ulaanbaatar to get some knowledge about Mongolian Buddhism. Except its main activity, a 26, 5 m statue of Migjid Janraisag Buddha (Buddhist bodhisattva) in one of the monastery’s old temple is another thing of interest.
National Museum of Mongolia